India is an ancient country with rich heritage, rich history, advanced culture and advanced ancient engineering techniques. Indian civilizations have flourished for more than 10,000 years and have been one of the richest country in the whole world. The ancient civilization of India is also known as history of Indus Valley Civilization. This civilization is known by many names – Harappan civilization, Indus Valley Civilization and Ancient India Civilization.
Harappa was an ancient city and one of the 1500 cities in Indus River valley. Many historians believes that Indus valley civilization began around 3,000 BCE. This civilization is considered as the mysterious civilization, because historians have not been able to translate their complicated Indus Script written language. It is the birthplace of the four great religions – Hinduism, Sikhism, Jainism and Buddhism. There are 400 – 600 Artefacts found having symbols which were pressed into soft clay with seals.
Archaeologists have found the remains of incredibly well planned out cities which could support as many as 80,000 people. The examination of teeth of skeletons and food of storage areas have helped the archaeologists in discovering the kind of food. There is very little evidence of weapons and military culture. Many archaeologists and historians believes that the reason behind declination of this civilization can be a great earthquake or change in climate which lead the people to move.
Vedic civilization, named after Vedas, is an earliest civilization in the history of ancient India. This civilization flourished along the River Saraswati, in a region that consists of modern Indian States of Punjab and Haryana. Ramayana and Mahabharta were the two great epics of this civilization. Caste system also got started in India during this time. Vedic texts, which were written in the 6th century shows that ancient Indians had profound knowledge of solar system.
There is an evidence of trade between Ancient India and Mesopotamia around 3200 BCE. Other evidences also suggests that Ancient India relied on trade in a larger way than any other ancient civilizations.
Ayurveda was mainly developed by an Indian physician, Charaka. It is the one and only medical system which takes the holistic view of the person being treated. Complicated medical procedures such as surgeries and caesareans were conducted by an ancient physician, Sushruta to rectify plastic surgery, kidney stone removal, cataract, limb prostheses, fractures and even brain surgery.
Facts about Zero
The number system was also invented in ancient India. Aryabhatta, a great Indian mathematician and astronomer discovered the number zero. Ancient India was so advanced in mathematics and science that calculus, algebra and trigonometry all came from India. Bhaskaracharya was the first person to rightly calculate the time taken by the earth to orbit around the sun.
Available evidences shows that the use of metals like copper and irom was prevalent in Indian subcontinent at a fairly early period. India emerged as a region of highly developed civilization by the end of 4th millennium BC.