Geographic terrain and weather were the reason for the ground of ancient civilizations in Africa to flourish. The African continent has areas that are fertile and prosperous, surrounded by harsh areas. This made people move to certain places and settle there. As the settlements increased, the need for trade and society also developed. This led to the formation of several ancient civilizations. The Nile River also played an important role in the flourishment of these civilizations. The three important early ancient civilizations in Africa are as follows:
Ancient Egypt: Most Ancient Civilization In Africa
As humankind moved towards Neolithic culture, people started to form society and depend on agriculture and hunting. The northern part of Africa, known as ancient Egypt, had an abundance of resources for people. At around 3150 BC, a ruler named Menes became the first ruler to form a kingdom in Egypt. During the span of his kingdom, several rulers ruled the province and termed themselves as Pharaohs. You can consider this ‘Old Kingdom’ to be advance in terms of social formation, town planning, and kingdom management. Thus served as an example for early kingdoms, ruling from the period of 2700 BC to 2200 BC. Their are many interesting facts to learn about this civilization.
Over the years the Civilization expanded through the Nile river, adding the territory with advanced architecture, trade, and arts. Various massive pyramids and golden ornates are said to be made during this civilization. King Ahmose led to the formation of the New Kingdom which lasted from 1550-1070 BC. Several instabilities became the reason for the decline of these kingdoms and Egypt was conquered by the Persians in 343 BC.
Ancient Civilizations In Africa: Kingdom Of Kush
Currently, the region of north Sudan comprises Kush province in the 21st century BC. This civilization flourished in the region of Nubia. This expanded up to 1100 km south to its origin. Sophistication drove the Kingdom to make a reputable name in the world. This happened due to the expanded reach across the world. There was an adaptation from the cultures of Arabian cities and the Mediterranean region. Throughout the period of rule, they remained one of the most advanced kingdoms with its three main capitals of Kerma, Meroe, and Nepata forming reputable names throughout Africa.
The Swahili Civilization
The Swahili civilization laid in its foundation in the early 100 AD in southeastern Africa but the civilization lacked any kingdom formation. The early boost from trades in the Indian Ocean around 400 AD and later formation of Arab trade routes in 700 AD expanded the civilization to the northern region of Somalia. There was an increase in sea trade routes from across the world. The new connections with Arabs also led to the spread of Islam in Swahili people. The network was building stronger with better sea routes and more trade but at the beginning of 1400 AD, Kilwa province fell weak. Therefore, this led the Portuguese to infiltrate and conquer the region, leading to the decline of this civilization.
Various ancient civilizations in Africa have made their specific name in different eras. However, political instability and the invasion of conquerors destroyed civilizations over the years.